The Maranoa h​as long been considered an agricultural region associated with cattle and wheat production. In the 2010/11 financial year the region’s agricultural outputs totalled approximately 700,000 head of cattle and 10.7% of Queensland’s total wheat production. The regional agricultural industry is still a significant driver of growth in the Maranoa, with an average growth rate of 14.6% over the five years to June 2013. The agricultural industry is responsible for approximately 18% of the Maranoa’s regional employment and 19.2% of productive output.
The major agricultural hub in the region, the Roma Saleyards, is the largest (by volume) cattle selling facility in Australia. In 2012/13 and 2013/14, cattle throughput equalled 406,033 and 356,806 head, respectively, or approximately 25% of total cattle sales in Queensland.